A monument is a type of structure either explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or simply as an example of historic architecture. In English the word “monumental” is often used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but also to mean simply anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art. The word comes from the Latin “monere,” which means ‘to remind’ or ‘to warn.’ The term is often used to describe any structure that is a significant and legally protected historic work, and many countries have equivalents of what is called in United Kingdom legislation a Scheduled Monument, which often include relatively recent buildings constructed for residential or industrial purposes, with no thought at the time that they would come to be regarded as “monuments”.
A statue is a sculpture in the round representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), normally full-length, as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size, or larger. Its primary concern is representational.
- Buildings designed as iconic landmarks
- Church monuments to commemorate the dead, above or near their grave, often featuring an effigy
- Cenotaphs and memorials to commemorate the dead, usually war casualties – e.g. Vimy Ridge Memorial and India Gate. A cenotaph is a type of monument intended to honor the dead who are buried elsewhere, such as those killed in a war or disaster.
- Columns, often topped with a statue – e.g. Trajan’s Column and Nelson’s Column in London
- Grave stones constitute small monuments to the deceased
- Mausoleums and tombs to inter the dead – e.g. the Great Pyramid of Giza and Taj Mahal
- Monoliths erected for religious or commemorative purposes
- Mounds erected to commemorate great leaders or events – e.g. Kościuszko Mound
- Mosque monuments are places of worship that usually feature highly skilled calligraphy and geometric artwork.
- Obelisks usually erected to commemorate great leaders – e.g. the Washington Monument, Monas
- Statues of famous individuals or symbols – e.g. Statue of Liberty
- Temples or religious structures built for pilgrimage, ritual or commemorative purposes – e.g. Borobudur, Kaaba
- Terminating vista, layout design for urban monuments
- Triumphal arches, almost always to commemorate military successes – e.g. the Arch of Constantine
- War memorials